The Troponin test is a hematological test that is used to measure the amount of troponin level in the blood. Troponin is a group of proteins found in cardiac (heart) muscle fibers that control muscular contraction. Troponin isn’t normally found in the blood. When heart muscles become injured, troponin is then sent into the bloodstream. As the damage increases, greater amounts of troponin are released in the blood. Primarily, troponin tests are used to determine if a person has suffered a heart attack. They may also help evaluate other forms of heart injury.
Majorly there are three types of troponin proteins: troponin C, troponin T, and troponin I. Troponin C initiates the contraction by binding calcium and moves troponin I so that the two proteins that make the muscle fiber shorter can interact. While troponin T anchors the troponin complex to the muscle fiber structure. There is very small or no difference in troponin C between skeletal and cardiac muscle, but the forms of troponin I and troponin T are different. Estimating the amount of cardiac-specific troponin T or troponin I in the blood can help identify individuals who have experienced damage to their hearts.
Other Names of Troponin Test:
cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin (cTN), cardiac-specific troponin I & troponin T.
Troponin test is a high-sensitive test primarily useful to diagnose a heart attack and other heart-related problems. Troponin tests are sometimes used to evaluate people for heart injury due to causes other than a heart attack or to distinguish signs and symptoms such as chest pain that may be due to different reasons. Testing are also used to evaluate people with angina if their signs and symptoms worsen.
Troponin tests are sometimes recommended along with other cardiac biomarkers, such as CK-MB or myoglobin. However, troponin is the preferred analysis test for a suspected heart attack because it is more specific for heart injury than other tests (which may be elevated in the blood with skeletal muscle injury) and remain elevated for a more extended period of time.
A troponin test may be advised when a person suspected with symptoms of a heart attack is admitted to an emergency room. These symptoms include:
A doctor or lab technician will take a blood sample from a vein in the arm using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be withdrawn into a test tube or vial.
No special preparation required prior to the test.
High level or even slight elevations in the troponin level may indicate some level of damage to the heart. Levels of troponin can become fluctuated in the blood within 3- 6 hours after heart injury and may remain elevated for 10-14 days.
Increased troponin levels are not be used by themselves to detect or rule out a heart attack. A physical examination, clinical history, and ECG are also necessary. Healthcare providers may also need to analyze whether the troponin levels from a series of tests are stably elevated or show a rise and/or fall over several hours. When an individual has significantly elevated troponin levels, a rise/ fall in the results from consecutive tests done over several hours, then it is likely possible that the individual has had a heart attack or some other form of injury to the heart.
Elevated troponin levels in people with angina may indicate that their situation is worsening, and they are at increased risk of a heart attack.
Troponin levels may also be raised with other heart conditions such as myocarditis (heart inflammation), weakening of the heart, or congestive heart failure, and with conditions unrelated to the heart, such as severe infections, blood clot in lungs, and kidney disease.
Increased troponin levels typically indicate that an individual has had a heart attack, which can occur if the blood supply to the heart muscles has somehow blocked.
Few causes of elevated troponin levels are as follows:
Heart attack means that some of the muscle tissue in the heart is severely injured or has died. The medical term for the death of cardiac muscle is called a myocardial infarction. Because it is not always possible to determine whether there is only serious injury or there is infarction known as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
A heart attack usually occurs because one of the blood vessels (coronary arteries) that brings blood to the heart muscle is blocked. This often happens when a blood clot forms in a blood vessel. Such blockage or obstruction occurs gradually over many years as lipid plaques are deposited along the walls of the blood vessels. These plaques narrow and stiffen the arteries and can rupture them unexpectedly, totally blocking off the affected artery.
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