Type 2 Diabetes: Causes and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes | Blog HOD
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Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes: Causes and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

When one has Type 2 Diabetes, the body is not able to use or manage the Insulin in the correct way, or a person has ‘Insulin resistance’. As a result, the levels of sugar (glucose) in the body builds up. People above the age of 40 are more susceptible to having Type 2 Diabetes.

What are the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes?

Some of the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes are:

  •  Fatigue, or a tendency to get tired quickly.
  •  Unintended weight loss.
  •  Lack of energy.
  •  Constant hunger.
  •  Blurry vision.
  •  Dry mouth.
  •  Itchy skin.
  •  High levels of thirst.
  •  The tendency to urinate more frequently.
  •  Wounds, infections and sores that take longer time to heal.
  •  Areas of darkened skin, usually in the neck and armpits.
  •  Tingling or numb sensations in the feet or hands.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes: ?

Do you know the causes of type 2 diabetes? HOD helps you know if you are at high risk for type of diabetes.

  • Consuming a lot of foods or drinks with sugar and simple carbohydrates: While having sugar does not either cause Type 1 Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes directly, eating too much can cause weight gain, which is one of the causes for developing Type 2 Diabetes.

  • Artificial sweeteners (sugar-free foods, sugar-free sodas) intake: Glucose intolerance can result because of artificial sweeteners, which is a precursor for Diabetes in adults and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that develop at the same time, resulting in increased risk of stroke, heart disease and Type 2 Diabetes).

  • Being overweight: Insulin resistance increases with increased body weight, resulting in development of high sugar. Pre-Diabetes is the first level, followed by Diabetes. If a person is overweight (if a person’s BMI is 25 to 29.9, which falls in the overweight category), the risk of getting Diabetes is 1.6 times higher.

  • Stress and anxiety: According to studies, depression, anxiety and emotional stress, sleeping problems, anger and aggression are associated with an increased risk for Type 2 Diabetes to develop.

  • Lack of activity (sedentary behavior) and lack of exercise: When there is little or no exercise and only unhealthy consumption, muscle cells lose their sensitivity to Insulin that controls the sugar levels in blood. When there is increased physical activity and healthy eating, it results in weight loss, which in turn allows the muscle cells to use Insulin and glucose more efficiently, thereby lowering Diabetes risk.

  • Family history: If your sibling or parent has Type 2 Diabetes, your risk of getting Type 2 Diabetes is increased as well.

  • Age: The risk of Diabetes type 2 increases after the age of 45, presumably because people tend to gain weight as they decrease their exercise load and are inactive more.

  • Race: People of certain races including American-Indian, Asian-American, Blacks (Afro-Americans) and Hispanic are more susceptible to developing Type 2 Diabetes, although with unclear reason.

  • Pre-Diabetes: This is the stage before final progression to Diabetes. This is the stage where the blood sugar level is higher than normal, yet not high enough to be categorized as Diabetes.

  • Gestational Diabetes: When pregnant, if you develop gestational Diabetes, you have an increased chance of developing Type 2 Diabetes. If the baby weighs more than 4 kgs, then your risk for getting Type 2 Diabetes increases too.

  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): For women, this condition is indicated by obesity, excessive hair growth and irregular menstrual periods, and this increases the risk of Diabetes as well.

Tests for Diabetes Type 2:

House of Diagnostics offers affordable and quick Diabetes tests to ensure your preparedness against ailments and general well-being of your health. You can book a test for yourself – or someone else who needs help – in just a few clicks here.

Tests for diabetes type 2 mentioned below

  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test or HbA1C: This blood test specifies your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is labeled as pre-Diabetes. When you have an A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on 2 separate tests, it means you have Diabetes. If the A1C test is unavailable or if you have certain conditions, such as a rare form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) which interferes with an A1C test, your doctor may suggest the following tests to diagnose Diabetes:

  • Random blood sugar test: Regardless of when your last meal was, a blood sample showing that your blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests Diabetes, particularly if you also have signs and symptoms of Diabetes, such as extreme thirst and frequent urination.

  • Fasting blood sugar test: A blood sample is taken after an overnight fast (10 hours fasting). A reading of less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal, whereas a level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered pre-Diabetes. If the fasting blood sugar is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on 2 separate tests, you have Diabetes.

  • Oral glucose tolerance test: Mostly used during pregnancy, this test is less commonly used than the others. After an overnight fast, you will drink a sugary liquid at the doctor’s office. For the next 2 hours, blood sugar levels are tested periodically. A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates pre-Diabetes, whereas 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher after two hours suggests Diabetes.

Other Important Tests:

Diabetes is a systemic disease which affects most systems of the body namely Cardiovascular, Urinary, Metabolic, and Neurological. Unregulated and long-standing Diabetes can lead to neuropathy, kidney failure, strokes, heart failure, vision loss, etc. To evaluate the current status, one can undergo Kidney Function Test, Liver Function Test, NCV, Ultrasound Abdomen, Urine for Microalbuminuria, Urine Protein Creatinine Ratio, Urine routine microscopy, etc. Further, the level of Vitamin D should be assessed as a deficiency of Vitamin D is known to lead to improper Glucose tolerance. Our Advance Care Package and Diabetic Profile packages can offer comprehensive tests which hold value for Diabetics at a fraction of total costs, providing significant Value-for-Money.

If you’re diagnosed with Diabetes, the doctor may suggest other tests to differentiate between Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes, since the 2 conditions often require different treatments.

Medications for Type 2 Diabetes:

If lifestyle changes do not help you to achieve your target blood sugar levels, medications are the next option. Some of the most common for Type 2 Diabetes include:

  • Metformin: To treat Diabetes type 2, this is generally the first medication prescribed. It helps the body to respond better to the Insulin the liver makes and lowers the amount of glucose it makes.

  • Sulfonylureas: This group of drugs help your body make more Insulin. They include gliclazide, glimepride, glipizide and glyburide.

  • Meglitinides: They help your body make more Insulin, and they work faster than sulfonylureas. They include nateglinide or repaglinide.

  • Thiazolidinediones: They make you more sensitive to Insulin, like metformin. They include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. The side effect is that they also raise your risk of heart problems, so they aren’t usually a first choice for treatment.

  • DPP-4 inhibitors: Linagliptin, saxagliptin and sitagliptin help lower your blood sugar levels, but they also cause joint pain and could inflame your Pancreas.

  • GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications slow digestion and lower blood sugar levels. Some of the most common ones are exenatide, liraglutide and semaglutide.

  • SGLT2 inhibitors: They prevent the kidneys from absorbing sugar into the bloodstream; however, they can make heart attack or stroke more probable. You might get canagliflozin, dapagliflozin or empagliflozin.

  • Insulin: This used to be a medication of last resort for people with Type 2 Diabetes, although doctors often use Insulin detemir or Insulin glargine at an earlier stage now because they work very well. They’re long-lasting shots that you take at night.

Tests for Type 2 Diabetes Available At House of Diagnostics (HOD).



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Type 2 Diabetes: Causes and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes | HOD Blog
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Type 2 Diabetes: Causes and Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes | HOD Blog
Read type 2 diabetes causes, symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes (adult-onset diabetes) is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all diabetes cases. A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose). Read more here
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