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Type 1 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms and How to Manage

Understanding Type 1 Diabetes

When the immune system kills cells in the Pancreas called beta cells, whose function is to make Insulin, the result is Diabetes type 1. When the immune system does not destroy the beta cells, the condition is called “Secondary Diabetes”.

What are the Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes?

Symptoms may appear comparatively unexpectedly, and may include:

  • Increased thirst.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Extreme hunger.
  • Bed-wetting in children who formerly did not have this issue during the night.
  • Unintended weight loss.
  • Irritability and other mood changes.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Fatigue and weakness.
  • Vaginal yeast infections
  • Breathing difficulty.
  • ‘Fruity’ smelling breath.

Risk Factors or Causes of Type 1 Diabetes: ?

It is unknown what specifically causes type 1 Diabetes. Typically, the body’s own immune system that normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses, destroys the Insulin-producing (islet, or islets of Langerhans) cells in the Pancreas by mistake. As a result, little or no Insulin is produced. Other possible causes include:

  • Genetics: Certain genes that are present in the body exhibit a tendency for an increased risk of developing type 1 Diabetes.

  • Family history: People with a parent or sibling with type 1 Diabetes have a slightly increased risk of developing the condition.

  • Geography: As one travels away from the equator, the frequency of type 1 Diabetes tends to rise.

  • Age: Usually, type 1 Diabetes appears at two noticeable peaks, although it can appear at any age. The first peak occurs in children between 4 and 7 years old, and the second in children between 10 and 14 years old respectively.

  • Exposure: to viruses and other environmental factors.

Tests for Diabetes Type 1:

House of Diagnostics offers affordable and quick tests for Type 1 Diabetes to ensure your preparedness against ailments and general well-being of your health. You can book a test for yourself – or someone else who needs help – in just a few clicks here.

Tests for diabetes type 1 mentioned below

Similar blood tests are conducted for both Diabetes type 1 and Diabetes type 2 diagnosis, respectively.

  • Random blood sugar test: For type 1 Diabetes, this is the primary screening test. A blood sample is taken randomly, regardless of when the child last ate. A random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L), or higher means Diabetes.

  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test or HbA1C: This test indicates the child’s average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. To be more precise, the test measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (hemoglobin). When the A1C level is 6.5 percent or higher on 2 separate tests, it means Diabetes.

  • Fasting blood sugar test: A blood sample is taken after the child fasts overnight. A fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher means type 1 Diabetes.

  • Additional Tests.
    To confirm whether the child has type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes, doctors usually recommend additional tests because it is important to differentiate between the two as their treatment strategies differ. Additional tests may include:

    – Blood tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 Diabetes.
    – Urine tests to check for ketones, whose presence also suggests type 1 diabetes rather than type 2.

Other Important Tests:

Diabetes is a systemic disease which affects most systems of the body namely Cardiovascular, Urinary, Metabolic, and Neurological. Unregulated and long-standing Diabetes can lead to neuropathy, kidney failure, strokes, heart failure, vision loss, etc. To evaluate the current status, one can undergo Kidney Function Test, Liver Function Test, NCV, Ultrasound Abdomen, Urine for Microalbuminuria, Urine Protein Creatinine Ratio, Urine routine microscopy, etc. Further, the level of Vitamin D should be assessed as a deficiency of Vitamin D is known to lead to improper Glucose tolerance. Our Advance Care Package and Diabetic Profile packages can offer comprehensive tests which hold value for Diabetics at a fraction of total costs, providing significant Value-for-Money.

If you’re diagnosed with Diabetes, the doctor may suggest other tests to differentiate between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes, since the 2 conditions often require different treatments.

Medications for Type 2 Diabetes:

All people with type 1 Diabetes must use Insulin injections to control their blood sugar. When your doctor talks about Insulin, s/he’ll mention the following:

  • “Onset” is the length of time before it reaches your bloodstream and begins lowering blood sugar.

  • “Peak time” is the time spent during which Insulin is doing the most work in terms of lowering blood sugar.

  • Duration” is the time period it keeps working after onset.

Several types of Insulin are available:

  • Rapid-acting starts to work in about 15 minutes, peaks around 1 hour after you take it and continues to work for 2 to 4 hours.

  • Regular or short-acting gets to work in about 30 minutes, peaks between 2 to 3 hours and keeps working for 3 to 6 hours.

  • Intermediate-acting will not get into your bloodstream for 2 to 4 hours after injection, peaks from 4 to 12 hours and works for 12 to 18 hours.

  • Long-acting takes several hours to get into the system, lasts for about 24 hours.

You may have to start with 2 injections a day of 2 different types of Insulin, and progress to 3 or 4 shots a day.

The most common practice involves a small glass bottle (called a vial) carrying Insulin. You have to draw it out with a syringe with a needle on the end, and give yourself the shot. Some now comes in a prefilled pen. One variety of this is inhaled. You can also get it from a pump – a wearable device that sends it into your body via a small tube. Your doctor will help you to pick the type and the delivery method that’s best for you.

How Can We Manage Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?

When one is diagnosed with Diabetes, following the doctor’s advice and taking medicines that are recommended is the only way forward. Nevertheless, one can take several steps to lessen the probability of contacting Diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), or, if one is already suffering from it, make sure that things don’t worsen. Lifestyle changes hold the key. Eating right (which involves giving sugar-heavy food, fat (trans and saturated), processed food meat, carbohydrates, alcohol and smoking a miss. Exercise can help as well.

Tests for Type 1 Diabetes Available At House of Diagnostics (HOD).



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Type 1 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms And How to Manage Type 1 Diabetes
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Type 1 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms And How to Manage Type 1 Diabetes
Read about type 1 diabetes, causes, risk factors, symptoms and how to manage type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
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